Alice Foster’s Internship Triggered New Excitement About Her Career Possibilities

Before her internship, Alice felt burnt out at school. After applying new skills and technologies to environmental projects at SkyTruth, she’s looking forward to her remaining classes and a fulfilling career.

As I wrap up my four-month internship at SkyTruth, I would like to share some highlights and takeaways from my experience. During my internship I explored the field of geospatial technology for the first time, which allowed me to learn new skills and gave me insight into my career goals. I learned about global environmental issues that I hadn’t known existed. And I got to work with a kind, dedicated, creative group of people. I contributed to SkyTruth’s mountaintop mining research and Project Inambari, which will create an early alert system for tropical forest mining. I also spent time identifying oil and gas well pads, collecting images of oil slicks, and creating annotated maps in QGIS, a geographic information system application that can be used to analyze and visualize geospatial data such as satellite imagery or a ship’s track across the ocean.

On just my first day of orientation at SkyTruth, the high level of support and guidance I received from the staff surprised me. My advisers Brendan Jarrell and Christian Thomas spent lots of time introducing me to concepts and technologies (like Google Earth Engine and QGIS) that I would use in my work. One of the first skills I learned was recognizing oil slicks on satellite imagery — most likely from vessels dumping oily bilge water at sea — and creating an annotated map to reveal the slicks to the public. Brendan patiently guided me through the steps to making a map twice. The team congratulated me when I found my first slick, even though I did not think it merited attention. This encouragement made me feel welcomed and excited about my work. 

The search for oil slicks allowed me to virtually explore oceans and coastlines across the globe. With time, it revealed to me more than how to use geospatial technology, but how little geography I knew. I would toggle past a country or island and wonder what it was like there, realizing I did not even know its name. And so I started exploring a geography trivia website in my free time to teach myself the countries of the world. I am now learning capital cities in Europe, which I tend to forget.

After getting practice with Google Earth Engine — a tool for analyzing and mapping satellite imagery and change around the world —  during my first couple of weeks at SkyTruth, I became involved in some mining-related projects. In one project, I adapted code from SkyTruth’s mountaintop mining research to incorporate satellite imagery from the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2 satellite. This imagery provides us additional data, which could improve our ability to detect surface mining throughout Central Appalachia. Working with the code in Earth Engine allowed me to better understand SkyTruth’s process for identifying mines. First, we produce a greenest pixel composite image from a collection of images. Making a composite in Earth Engine means combining multiple overlapping images to create a single image. Images can be combined in different ways; in this case, the greenest pixel composite selects pixels with the highest Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values compared with corresponding pixels in the image collection. NDVI is an indicator of plant health in a given area. To provide a more concrete example, suppose we want to make a greenest pixel composite from three images, all showing a part of West Virginia at different times of summer. Say we look at one pixel in one of the images, which covers a small square of forest. We then compare this pixel with the pixels covering the same bit of forest in the other two images, and we choose the greenest of the three (or, the pixel with the highest NDVI value). If we repeat this process for every pixel in the image, we get one image with all the greenest pixels selected from the collection. 

A second script uses the greenest pixel composite to approximate the lowest NDVI value for each county, producing a threshold image. Again, say we have the greenest pixel composite of West Virginia that we just made. Now we look at forested areas within one county and find the pixels that are least green, or have the lowest NDVI values, and then take the average of these NDVI values. This is the threshold for that county; if a pixel is less green than the threshold, it is likely a mine. Our output image contains these values for every county. As a final step, we compare the greenest pixels with the NDVI thresholds to determine likely mine areas. 

Figure 1. Mining data overlying a Sentinel-2 greenest composite image. The image covers counties in West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky.

SkyTruth’s surface mining expert, Christian Thomas, also had me experiment with two different techniques for masking clouds in Sentinel-2 imagery. Clouds obstruct necessary data in images, so clearing them out improves analyses. The standard approach uses a built-in “cloud mask” band. The other approach is an adapted “FMasking” method. This takes advantage of the  arrangement of sensors on Sentinel-2 satellites, which creates a displacement effect in the imagery that is more pronounced for objects at altitude. The FMask uses this effect to distinguish low altitude clouds from human-made infrastructure on land. Though the two methods had similar results, the FMask seemed slightly more accurate.

Working on technical projects like this, I learned how much I enjoy using imagery and geospatial data. I had found analyzing data interesting in the past, but something about being able to visualize the information on a map was even more appealing. I loved how a satellite image could be reduced to numbers and assessed quantitatively, or understood visually, almost as a piece of art. 

In another project, I had the opportunity to develop my writing skills by contributing to an  application for the Artisanal Mining Grand Challenge, a global competition to provide solutions for small-scale, low-tech, and/or informal mining. Researching artisanal gold mining was illuminating, as I knew almost nothing about the subject beforehand. I learned that illegal gold mining in Venezuela and Peru has often involved brutal violence and exploitation. In recent decades, labor and sex trafficking have plagued remote mining regions like Madre de Dios. Small-scale mining practices are also particularly damaging to the biodiverse Amazon ecosystem. To extract a small amount of gold, miners must dig up massive amounts of sediment, denuding the landscape in the process. The use of mercury in artisanal gold mining is incredibly detrimental to water quality and human health.

I was also able to be involved in the technical side of this project, building a tool to detect mines in the Peruvian Amazon. I created a mask that removes water from satellite images so that water areas could not be mistaken for mine areas or vice versa. Mines are often near water or can look like water in imagery. To make the mask, I used the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre global surface water dataset. This dataset contains information about where and when surface water occurred around the world over the past thirty years. In Google Earth Engine, the data is stored in an image with bands representing different measures of surface water. I used the “occurrence,” “seasonality,” and “recurrence” bands to create the mask. “Occurrence” refers to how often water was present at a location; “seasonality” means the number of months during which water was present; and “recurrence” is the frequency with which water returned from one year to the next. I tried to find a combination of band values that would do the best job getting rid of water without masking mines or forest. For example, using an occurrence value of twenty, (that is, masking pixels where water was present twenty percent or more of the time), ended up masking mine areas as well. Christian also suggested using a buffer, which meant that pixels adjacent to a masked pixel also got masked. Since the mask often did not capture all of the pixels in a body of water, the buffer filled in the gaps. Masked pixels dotting a river became a continuous thread. The buffer also helped eliminate river banks, which look similar to mines. We applied the finished water mask to the area of interest in Madre de Dios, Peru.

Figure 2: Water mask in the Madre de Dios region of Peru. White pixels have value 1, while black pixels (water) have value 0. When the mask is applied to a satellite image, all pixels in the black areas appear transparent and are not included in analyses. When identifying potential mines in the image, the masked areas are ignored.

Researching issues related to artisanal gold mining left me unsure of how countermeasures can fully promote the welfare of mine workers and others involved in the long term. The problem of illegal gold mining seems entrenched in broader economic and social issues and therefore cannot be addressed simply by identifying and eradicating mines. Nevertheless, understanding the great damage that this type of mining can do to humans and their environment made clear to me the importance of the project. 

Not only did working at SkyTruth teach me a variety of technical and professional skills, it also helped reveal to me what I want to learn about and pursue in the future. In school last fall, I felt burnt out to the point that I just wanted to get through my remaining semesters and be done. Now I feel the excitement about academics I had as a freshman, motivated and informed by my experience at SkyTruth. With my interest in geology and climate issues renewed, I feel like there is barely enough time left to take all the classes I want to. I hope to improve on skills like writing and computer programming so that I can contribute my best work in the future. Being part of an amazing team has motivated me in that way. I also know that I would like to use the geospatial technologies and approaches I learned at SkyTruth moving forward. I feel excited about future career possibilities; before my internship, I felt confused.

I want to give a huge thank you to Bruce and Carolyn Thomas for hosting me in Shepherdstown. I want to thank Christian for introducing me to SkyTruth and for including me in his Dungeons and Dragons game! And I want to thank everyone on the SkyTruth team for their guidance and for being wonderful.

Figure 3: Team Hike, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. Photo by Amy Emert.

SkyTruth Board Member Mary Anne Hitt: Activist Extraordinaire

Mary Anne Hitt has led Sierra Club’s Beyond Coal Campaign to extraordinary national success. But she honed her skills in Appalachia, with a little help from SkyTruth.

You might say Mary Anne Hitt has Appalachian activism in her blood. When she was growing up in Gatlinburg, Tennessee (where she attended Dolly Parton’s former high school), her father was Chief Scientist at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Back then, acid rain was decimating high elevation forests in the East, fueled by pollution from coal-fired power plants. Her father watched as iconic places in the park turned into forests of skeleton trees. He knew the science pointed to nearby power plants run by the Tennessee Valley Authority, and wanted to stop the pollution. But his warnings triggered some resistance from those who didn’t want to rock the boat. “So right from the start,” says Mary Anne, she was “immersed in the beauty and the threats” of protecting Appalachian forests. And she knew the costs of speaking out.

Those costs have never stopped her. Mary Anne graduated from the University of Tennessee, creating her own environmental studies major and forming a student environmental group that continues today. Later, she obtained a graduate degree in advocacy at the University of Montana. Now, she leads the Sierra Club’s Beyond Coal Campaign; a national effort to retire all coal plants in the United States, moving towards 100% renewable energy by 2030, while supporting economic opportunities in communities affected by plant closures.

And she serves on SkyTruth’s board of directors. Her entre to SkyTruth is also steeped in Appalachian advocacy. In the early aughts, Mary Anne was Executive Director of Appalachian Voices, a nonprofit conservation group dedicated to fighting mountaintop mining, fracked-gas pipelines and other harmful activities in Appalachia, while advancing energy and economic alternatives that allow Appalachian communities to thrive. Appalachian Voices is one of SkyTruth’s conservation partners; a relationship that began under Mary Anne’s leadership.

As Mary Anne tells it, Appalachian Voices was fighting mountaintop mining and construction of a new coal plant in southwest Virginia. While fighting the plant, they discovered that 200 new power plants were planned across the country. In other words, a whole new generation of power plants was on the books to replace aging plants. A coalition of grassroots groups and local citizens, organized with help from the Sierra Club, worked to stop them, fighting permits at every stage, slowing the process down and making financial backers nervous.

Figure 1. Mary Anne Hitt

Appalachian Voices contacted SkyTruth to help them convey the vast extent of mountaintop mining in Appalachia as part of their work. In response, SkyTruth developed the first scientifically credible database on the extent of mountaintop mining in the region. (You can read more about this collaboration and what we found here.) SkyTruth continues to update this database every year, providing scientists and others valuable information that supports research on the ecological and human health effects of mountaintop mining.

SkyTruth’s database helped support the broader advocacy work Appalachian Voices was spearheading to fight coal mining and power plants in the region. Collectively, environmental, legal, and grassroots groups nationwide stopped almost all of the proposed power plants, according to Mary Anne. (Ironically, the one in southwest Virginia actually did get built.) “If these plants had been built it would have been doom for our climate,” Mary Anne says now. “There would have been no room for renewables…Grassroots people working in their communities made it happen. That’s what makes me most proud.”

Mary Anne took her successful experience fighting power plants in Appalachia and brought it to the Sierra Club as Deputy Director of the Beyond Coal Campaign in 2008, later becoming Director. The Sierra Club has built on those early lessons and applied them to shutting down all coal plants in the United States. Today, 312 of 530 plants that existed in 2010 have retired or announced their retirement. And according to Mary Anne, the United States reached a promising benchmark a year ago: last April marked the first time we obtained more energy from renewables than from coal. In fact, in 2019 the US consumed more power from renewable energy than from coal for the first time in 130 years. “Most of our arguments now are economic,” says Mary Anne. “The power from a coal plant is more expensive than renewable energy, so people don’t want it. People will keep demanding renewables.”

In April of this year, Mary Anne took on an even bigger responsibility at Sierra Club – the National Director of Campaigns, a new position in the organization where she oversees all the organization’s campaign work. It’s a big job, on top of being a mother to her ten-year old daughter. So why did she agree to join the SkyTruth Board? “Ever since my daughter was born,” says Mary Anne, “I had a policy of not being on any boards because I have a demanding job and serving on boards was more time away from her. But I really believe that SkyTruth’s work is foundational for the environmental movement. I think the ability to see for yourself what’s going on, especially in this age of misinformation, where people don’t know what to believe… the ability to show people with their own eyes what’s going on, I think is more important than ever.”

She also knows from her years in advocacy that having access to technical resources and expertise is challenging for nonprofits, especially small ones. “To provide this to groups in a way that’s technically sophisticated, but they can use it, is a real service,” she says. And SkyTruth has had significant impact on key issues, she notes, particularly given its small size. “To the extent that I can help, I want to do that. And I love that they are based in West Virginia and Shepherdstown – it’s a cool part of SkyTruth’s story.”

But a professional life of activism involves a lot of conflict, Mary Anne acknowledges. To balance it out, she and her husband Than Hitt, a stream ecologist, sing and play guitar at local fundraisers and other community events. Than is a 10th generation West Virginian and they live in Shepherdstown, where SkyTruth is based. The local singing is all for fun she says.

“It’s a way to connect with people you wouldn’t otherwise… And having a creative outlet helps keep me whole.” With activism, “you’re living in your head a lot. Music is in your heart. We all need that.”

 

SkyTruth’s West Virginia FrackFinder Datasets Updated

Oil and gas drilling activity in West Virginia continues to expand.

For more than a decade, SkyTruth has been tracking the footprint of oil and gas development in the Marcellus and Utica shale basins in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio through our FrackFinder project. Initially, our FrackFinder project relied on volunteers to help us identify activity on the ground (thank you to all you SkyTruthers out there!). Since then, we’ve continued to update this database with help from SkyTruth interns and staff. Today, we’re excited to announce our latest updates to our West Virginia FrackFinder datasets. The updated data now include drilling sites and impoundments that appeared on the landscape through 2015–2016 (our 2016 update) and through 2017–2018 (our 2018 update). In 2016, 49 new drilling sites and 17 new impoundments appeared on the landscape. In 2018, 60 additional drilling sites and 20 new impoundments appeared; an 18% and 15% jump, respectively, from 2016.

With these additions, our West Virginia datasets track the footprint of oil and gas development in the state for more than decade, stretching from 2007 to 2018. 

Image 1. New drilling sites in Tyler County, near Wilbur and West Union, WV

We use high-resolution aerial photography collected as a part of the USDA’s National Agricultural Imaging Program (NAIP) to identify drilling sites and impoundments and make their locations available to the public. NAIP imagery is typically collected every two to three years, so once the imagery from each flight season is available, we  compare permit information from the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection with NAIP imagery to find and map new drilling sites. Our datasets of what’s actually on the ground — not just what’s been permitted on paper — help landowners, public health researchers, nonprofits, and policymakers identify opportunities for better policies and commonsense regulations. And our data has resulted in real-world impacts. For example, researchers from Johns Hopkins University used our FrackFinder data in Pennsylvania to document the human health impacts of fracking. Their research found that living near an unconventional natural gas drilling site can lead to higher premature birth rates in expecting mothers and may also lead to a greater chance of suffering an asthma attack. Maryland Governor Larry Hogan cited this information in his decision to ban fracking in his state. 

We’ve shared the updated FrackFinder West Virginia data with research partners at Downstream Strategies and the University of California–Berkeley investigating the public health impacts of modern drilling and fracking, and with environmental advocacy groups like Appalachian Voices and FracTracker Alliance fighting the expansion of energy development in the mid-Atlantic.

We are also proud to roll out a Google Earth Engine app, which will be the new home for our  West Virginia FrackFinder data. Users can find all of our previous years’ data (2007–2014) as well as our new 2016 and 2018 datasets on this app. The interactive map allows you to zoom into locations and see exactly where we’ve found oil and gas drilling sites and wastewater impoundments. A simple click on one of the points will display the year in which we first detected drilling, along with the measured area of the site or impoundment (in square meters). Users can toggle different years of interest on and off using the left panel of the map. At the bottom of that same panel, uses can access the total number of drilling sites and impoundments identified during each year. Lastly, users can download SkyTruth’s entire FrackFinder dataset using the export button.

Image 2. Our Earth Engine app lets users track oil and gas development through time in WV.

We hope that the updates to our West Virginia FrackFinder datasets, and the new Earth Engine app that hosts them, will inform researchers, landowners, policymakers, and others, and help them bring about positive change. Feel free to take a look and send us feedback; we love to hear from people using our data.

New Intern Matthew Ibarra Shifts from Aerospace Engineering to Protecting the Planet from Space

Matthew thought he wanted to be an aerospace engineer when he started college. Then he learned more about environmental damage to the planet.

Hello There!

My name is Matthew Ibarra and I am a new intern at SkyTruth. I am currently a student attending West Virginia University (WVU). Originally I came to WVU to study mechanical and aerospace engineering. I have always been passionate about math and science and so naturally I believed engineering would be a perfect fit for me. I was a part of my robotics team in high school and I believed this would be something I could do forever. 

However, as my time at WVU went on I became much less interested in engineering and I decided that I wanted to study something else. Through my engineering classes I inadvertently learned more about energy and from there about renewable energy sources. I developed a passion for renewables and I decided I wanted to shift my focus of study and work on environmental challenges. I have always felt there is a lot more bad news than good news in the world and I kept hearing about problems such as massive deforestation in the Amazon, pollution of the planet and the oceans — and those were just the tip of the melting iceberg. I wanted to do something that would leave a lasting impact. All of these factors pushed me to change my major to Environmental and Energy Resource Management. And it was the best decision I have ever made. 

Matthew played saxaphone for the WVU marching band and currently plays clarinet in the WVU Concert Band and saxophone in the WVU pep band. Photo by Roger Sealey.

My best friend Amanda’s mother Teri works at SkyTruth as our office administrator, which was very serendipitous for me. Amanda told me about SkyTruth and I was excited to learn how SkyTruth gathers environmental data and conducts research using satellite imagery. I was intrigued because it seemed like SkyTruth worked in all the areas I was passionate about: the environment, technology, and research. I looked into some of SkyTruth’s current and past projects and the ones that excited me the most include FrackFinder, which helps keep track of the environmental impacts of fracking for natural gas. I was also excited about SkyTruth’s interactive maps that help track the removal of mountaintops from coal mining. SkyTruth works on many other projects that I knew that I wanted to be a part of as well. An internship at SkyTruth was the perfect way for me to not only help work on projects I cared about, but also to learn more about what I am interested in.

As an intern I am currently working to monitor the South East Asia region for bilge dumps. Bilge dumps are illegal practices by vessels that attempt to bypass pollution control and dump their oily ballast and waste water at sea. I am collecting useful data that will contribute to a machine learning program that can automatically detect bilge dumps from satellite images around the world. I am also working to update FrackFinder to include data from 2016 and create an interactive map that can easily display information such as natural gas well pad locations in West Virginia, and when they were drilled, to show how natural gas fracking has impacted West Virginia over time.

I am passionate about sustainability and hope to make this central to my career. Sustainability is the notion of living your life in such a way that you leave resources for the people who come after you. After my time here at SkyTruth I hope to go into government work. I would like to work for the Department of Energy in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Fossil fuels will eventually run out and a transition to renewables will help current climate and environmental issues. I feel that it is important to find solutions now and transition our power needs to something that is more sustainable while we are still able to do so. 

Matthew admires Blackwater Canyon in West Virginia. Photo by Matthew Ibarra.

I believe SkyTruth is important in achieving my goals because I am gaining valuable skills and knowledge that I know will help me in the future. I love working with Geographic Information System programs (GIS). GIS is essentially using computers to analyze physical features of the Earth such as measuring forest density or tracking changing temperatures; it has almost endless applications.  I am learning to work with Google Earth Engine which is essentially a super powerful and intuitive way to work in GIS. Earth Engine requires me to be able to code in the programming language JavaScript and so I’m learning that skill as well. These are skills that will be forever relevant in the future and I am excited to deepen my understanding of them.

When I started college five years ago I never thought that I would end up where I am today. I spent so many sleepless nights trying to finish my physics homework and study my chemistry notes. I never thought that I would want to give all that up to work in something completely different, but I am thankful I did. I am eager to be learning something new every day at SkyTruth and I am thankful to everyone who helped me get to where I am today. I am excited to continue my internship here and keep learning more about what’s important to me.

Matthew is a hockey fan and celebrated the DC Capitals’ Stanley Cup victory in 2018. Photo by Photos Beyond DC.

 

 

A Systematic Search for Bilge Dumping at Sea: 2019 in Review

What can a year’s worth of bilge dumping data tell us?

This is the first entry in a multi-part series revealing the significance of bilge dumping globally. 

Out of sight, beyond the horizon, lies a world of activity taking place in the sea. The ocean encompasses over 70% of the globe, yet most of us only see its edges from the coasts. We’ve built many of humanity’s largest and most advanced societies along coastal regions, yet because the ocean is so remote, much of what happens there remains mysterious.  

You might think of crime at sea as violence (piracy), abuse of natural resources (illegal fishing), or pollution (oil spills). However, at SkyTruth, we’ve recently focused on combating another very troubling action on the water: a serious crime known as bilge dumping. While not as well known as pollution like the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, bilge dumping is a phenomenon that should not be overlooked, and yet it often is. 

Bilge dumping occurs when a vessel illegally releases untreated, oily wastewater into the ocean. This wastewater, known as bilge, collects in the ship’s lower hull and needs to be emptied regularly. Since the 1970’s an international law known as MARPOL has required that bilge water be treated to remove the oil before the bilge can be legally discharged into the sea. When a vessel circumvents treatment and dumps directly into the ocean, its wastewater creates an oily slick on the water. Radar satellite imagery captures these distinctive slicks — dark and opaque — because oil smoothes the surface of the water. This dense oily slick lingers in the water until it’s broken apart by wind and wave action, dispersing toxins and globs of oil that can harm coastal communities and marine ecosystems. Vessel operators probably commit this crime as an act of convenience: to save money or time cleaning up after themselves, imposing on others the negative consequences.

SkyTruth has observed likely bilge dumping incidents around the globe many times since 2007. But in 2019, we started seeking out these incidents more systematically. We focused our daily monitoring efforts on some of the world’s major shipping lanes and on areas where we’ve found problems in the past, cataloguing every incident of bilge dumping we found through imagery. Our intent was to better understand the scope of this recurrent problem. We noted that when we went to look for oily slicks, we always found more! Unfortunately, we began to expect to see them; they were occurring somewhere within the areas we monitored almost every day. And our monitoring only covered a small part of the ocean. 

In total, between January and December 2019, we found 163 slicks averaging 56 kilometers (almost 35 miles) in length. We almost always found bilge dumps using Sentinel-1 imagery:  high-resolution C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite data made available by the European Space Agency. Although this imagery is sparse over the open ocean (see our blog post showing the coverage provided by these and other imaging satellites), it is collected regularly in coastal areas and provided coverage of several areas we considered likely to experience bilge dumping. Figure 1 documents each bilge dump incident we discovered, identified as red dots (note that because our monitoring was not covering the entire ocean, the lack of red dots in many areas on this map doesn’t necessarily mean those areas are free from bilge dumping).

 

Figure 1: Likely bilge dumping events identified by SkyTruth in 2019.

Our work suggests that bilge dumping isn’t sporadic; we repeatedly detected this illegal behavior in shipping lanes across the world, usually surrounding areas with significant energy development or active commercial ports, and often in areas with a “chokepoint” of marine traffic congestion. Bilge dumping was commonly seen in Southeast Asia, the Persian Gulf, and the Gulf of Guinea. Less frequently, but notably, we discovered it off the coast of Brazil, in the Mediterranean Sea, and in the Gulf of Mexico. In some cases, we have been able to identify the polluters, by correlating Automatic Identification System broadcasts (used to prevent collisions) from ships, with the time and location of oily slicks. 

In 2020, SkyTruth is working towards automating this process so we can routinely monitor much more of the ocean. We plan to use machine learning techniques to scan available satellite imagery daily, with the hopes of identifying these slicks automatically. Near real-time detection will allow authorities and the public to respond as soon as they receive notice of the slick, meaning more perpetrators (who might still be nearby, or headed into port) can be caught, and timely actions can be taken to mitigate potential environmental harm.

Figure 2. Likely bilge dump incidents identified by SkyTruth in 2019 by region.

The next segments of this series will explore bilge dumping in more depth, includingWhy should you care?” “How can this be happening?” and “What can be done about it?” We work as  space detectives —  investigating meticulously from above, revealing as much as we can down to the most pressing and actionable details. As we increase monitoring, automate the detection of offshore pollution with the use of machine learning, and raise public awareness, polluters will learn that they are being watched. We believe that more transparency leads to better behavior, better management, and better outcomes for Planet Earth. At SkyTruth, we are working to stop this illegal pollution by giving it the scrutiny it deserves. 

 

Updated 5/11/20