AIS Ship Tracking Data Shows False Vessel Tracks Circling Above Point Reyes, Near San Francisco

Analysis from SkyTruth and Global Fishing Watch shows ship tracks jumping thousands of miles from their true locations.

Bjorn Bergman works with SkyTruth and with the Global Fishing Watch research team to track vessels broadcasting false automatic identification system (AIS) locations and to investigate new sources of satellite data for vessel tracking and for detecting dark targets at sea. In this blog post, Bjorn spots an unusual pattern of false AIS broadcasts concentrated at one location, Point Reyes, northwest of San Francisco on the California coast. Why would vessels thousands of miles away be suddenly popping up in circles over Point Reyes? Could this reflect an intentional disruption of the underlying global positioning system (GPS) that AIS relies on, or is there some other explanation for this pattern?

In December 2019, SkyTruth reported on a number of locations on the Chinese coast (mostly oil terminals) where ship tracking positions from the automatic identification system (AIS)  became scrambled as soon as ships approached within a few miles of a point on shore. Importantly, we knew that this was actual disruption of the underlying global positioning system (GPS) — or more broadly the Global Navigation Satellite System — and not just a shipboard AIS malfunction. We determined this because another source of GPS data, Strava’s heat map of fitness trackers, showed the same ring pattern. A quick recent check of the data showed that this GPS manipulation is ongoing at oil terminals in four of the cities (Shanghai, Dalian, Fuzhou, and Quanzhou) where we had detected it last year. We still don’t know if this manipulation is specifically intended to mask ship traffic or if there is some other reason for disrupting GPS.

Following the findings last year on the Chinese coast, I began looking globally for any similar patterns in AIS tracking data around the world. While I haven’t found the precise pattern observed at the Chinese oil terminals outside of China, I did find a somewhat different false AIS broadcast pattern which, strangely enough, appears concentrated above Point Reyes northwest of San Francisco, California in the United States. Although the circling tracks look similar in both locations, the vessels on the Chinese coast were at most a few miles from the circling tracks, while the vessels broadcasting tracks above Point Reyes are actually thousands of miles away. So far I’ve found vessels in nine locations affected. Some of these locations are near oil terminals or where GPS disruption has been reported before, but there is no clear pattern linking all of the affected areas.  

Image 1: AIS tracks from a number of vessels have appeared circling over Point Reyes near San Francisco even though the ships can be confirmed to be thousands of miles away. False circling tracks from five vessels are shown here. AIS data courtesy of Global Fishing Watch / Orbcomm / Spire.

The AIS positions being broadcast over Point Reyes are obviously false (some of them are over land and they show a constant speed and oval pattern we wouldn’t see with a real ship track). But how can we be sure where the ship really is? The most important indication is the location broadcast just prior to the jump to Point Reyes and then where the vessel reappears after the apparent circling finishes. The duration of the circling pattern varies, from less than an hour for one ship in the Indian Ocean, to as much as two weeks for some of the other vessels. However, besides seeing the true locations before and after the jump to Point Reyes, it’s also possible to look at where the AIS receiving satellites were while the vessels were broadcasting positions around Point Reyes.

Image 2: The colored lines show AIS tracks from five of the ships whose broadcast positions jumped suddenly to Point Reyes, California, northwest of San Francisco. The time of the tracking disruption varies from less than one hour for one vessel to about two weeks for some others. Two of the vessels (Princess Janice and Alkahfi Maryam) also have tracks appearing over land in North America. The reason for this displacement is unknown although some of the vessels are in areas where GPS disruption has been reported (Eastern Mediterranean and Sea of Azov). AIS data courtesy of Global Fishing Watch / Orbcomm / Spire.

To get an approximate location for one vessel’s real position during the two weeks it broadcast over Point Reyes and the Western United States, SkyTruth analyst Christian Thomas and I analyzed the footprints of the satellites receiving the AIS positions. This was possible thanks to data Spire Global, Inc. provided to Global Fishing Watch. Spire’s data gives the identity of the receiving satellite with each AIS position. This allowed the Global Fishing Watch research team to access orbit information, which they used to calculate exactly the point above the surface of the earth where each satellite was when it received an AIS position and then calculate the distance from the satellite position to the ship’s broadcast AIS position. Because AIS broadcasts are only received within an approximately 5,000 kilometer (3,100 mile) diameter footprint, we know that the vessel was somewhere within this area. We can even narrow down the location further based on successive passes of AIS receiving satellites. 

Image 3: Broadcast AIS positions from Princess Janice. The track makes multiple jumps between a real location in an oil terminal on the coast of Nigeria (inset lower right) and false positions over the United States. Over two weeks in June 2019 the false track initially circles over Point Reyes northwest of San Francisco before veering over the Pacific and over the interior of the United States. More circling is seen around Salt Lake City Utah (inset upper right). AIS data courtesy of Global Fishing Watch / Orbcomm / Spire.

This vessel, the Princess Janice, is a crew boat traveling to offshore oil installations. It broadcasts a normal track out of a Nigerian oil terminal until June 5, 2019. For the following two weeks the vessel then broadcasts a false location track circling above Point Reyes and eventually veering off above Utah (during this time the track occasionally jumped back briefly to the Nigerian oil terminal). Unlike other false AIS broadcasts we have documented, which have a constant location offset or flipped coordinate values (producing a mirror image of the actual position), these circling tracks appear to not reflect the true movements of the vessel in any way. 

When we looked at the footprint of the satellite receiving AIS positions from Princess Janice, it’s clear that the vessel remained on a stretch of the central Nigerian coast or in nearby waters in the Gulf of Guinea (see Image 4) throughout the two-week period when false locations were being broadcast. 

Image 4: Princess Janice broadcasts an AIS track over Point Reyes near San Francisco and over the Western United States from June 5 – 21, 2019 (see Image 3). Analysis of the footprints for the satellites receiving these positions demonstrates that the vessel was actually within a region on the central Nigerian coast and adjacent Gulf of Guinea. Frame 1: Location over the Earth’s surface (red dots) of satellites receiving false position messages. Frame 2: Extent of satellite footprints for AIS reception (large red circles). Frame 3: Density of satellite coverage overlap, areas of increasing density shown as Blue → Green → Yellow → White. Frame 4: Area where all satellite footprints overlap (maximum coverage) shown in white. The white shaded region on the central Nigerian coast contains the true location of the Princess Janice during the period when the vessel was broadcasting a false location track. Analysis was done in Google Earth Engine using approximate satellite footprints of 5,000 km (3,100 miles) diameter.

Both the manipulated GPS positions seen on the Chinese coast and these new examples over Point Reyes are characterized by rings of positions. The rings have similar shapes, somewhat wider east to west than north to south. However circles appearing over Point Reyes vary greatly in size and the broadcast vessel courses may be oriented clockwise or counterclockwise around the ring. All speeds are exactly 20 knots. In contrast, the rings on the Chinese vessels last year had positions that were 21 or 31 knots with the 31 knot positions always oriented counterclockwise. Critically, while we could confirm that GPS interference caused the rings of AIS positions on the Chinese coast, we don’t yet know if that is the case with the positions over Point Reyes. An alternative is that this is simply a malfunction affecting the individual ships’ AIS systems. We were able to confirm that the false circling positions over Point Reyes occur in data from all available AIS providers (Orbcomm, Spire, and ExactEarth) and in AIS positions received by both satellites and terrestrial receivers.

The list of affected vessels below (Table 1) shows that many types of vessels in different geographic locations have displayed this same pattern of AIS disruption. Some were in areas where GPS problems have been reported by others (the Eastern Mediterranean, Sea of Azov, Libyan coast); other locations are seemingly random. A number of the vessels, but not all, appear near oil terminals and are involved in supporting offshore platforms. 

TABLE 1.

Table 1: Vessels showing a pattern of false circling AIS positions. Reported locations are where circling tracks appeared (mainly at Point Reyes near San Francisco). Real locations are where the vessel was determined to be while broadcasting the false circling AIS track. AIS data courtesy of Global Fishing Watch / Orbcomm / Spire.

The presence of three of these vessels in areas of documented GPS interference is intriguing. The cargo ship Berezovets shown below was operating in one such area in the Sea of Azov, north of the Black Sea. Following the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014 and the takeover of Eastern Ukraine by Russian-backed separatists, the front line in the ongoing civil war has cut through Eastern Ukraine north of the Sea of Azov. There have also been conflicts on the water and a Russian blockade of the Kerch Strait leading north from the Black Sea.

Image 5: The Russian flagged cargo ship Berezovets transits through the Sea of Azov in June 2019 and has its AIS track jump suddenly to Point Reyes near San Francisco (inset). Incidents of documented GPS disruption occurred in March 2019 east of the Bilosarai Spit and in July 2019 in the city of Starohnatvka. AIS data courtesy of Global Fishing Watch / Orbcomm / Spire.

The Russian flagged Berezovets transited through the Kerch Strait on June 3, 2019 then headed northeast passing south of the conflict zone towards Russian ports. As the vessel enters Russian waters (location 1 in Image 5) and anchors, its June 4-8 positions broadcast by the AIS system are scrambled, some appearing scattered 20 miles from the vessel’s anchor point. The vessel track then moves east towards port before jumping 20 miles north to a point on land (2) and then jumping about 11,000 miles west to circle above Point Reyes (3). This circling continues for about 60 hours from June 11 – 14, including some irregular positions extending about 40 miles into the Pacific. As with the Princess Janice track, it’s unclear why the false track would jump to California and what accounts for the individual variations in the different tracks we see appearing at this location. On June 14, 2019 the Berezovets AIS track jumps back to the vessel’s real location, now in the Russian port of Azov (4) and can then be seen to proceed eastward up the River Don.  

The unusual disruption in the Berezovets broadcast AIS track was both preceded and followed by similar reported disruptions in GPS in the same region. On March 7, 2019 a Ukrainian military website reported that three vessels on the Sea of Azov experienced failures in their navigation systems. One of these failures occurred the day before, east of Bilosarai Spit (see Image 5). The other two reported disruptions were in the preceding month at other locations in the Sea of Azov. On July 23, 2019 according to a report from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe’s Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) flying over the city of Starohnativka in Ukraine, was one of several UAVs that experienced GPS interference assessed to be likely from jamming. While not conclusive, the proximity of these other reported incidents makes it possible that the disruption seen in the Berezovets track was a result of the GPS interference known to be occuring in the area. 

Two other vessels were also in areas with documented GPS disruptions, Suha Queen II approaching the coast of Libya, and Haj Sayed I transiting from the Suez canal to Eastern Turkey. However, in searching for vessels showing the same circling pattern seen over Point Reyes, I have not yet found that multiple vessels in areas like the Sea of Azov were similarly affected. Global AIS data does show a few vessels with tracks circling over other locations. Two pilot vessels on the Chilean coast had their broadcast positions suddenly jump to circling tracks over Madrid. The Suha Queen II approaching the coast of Libya had its track jump to the Chinese city of Shanwei. The most recent vessel to appear circling over Point Reyes is the Ting Yuk, a tugboat operating in Hong Kong, which had its AIS track disrupted for a few hours at the end of March. 

So far it remains a mystery why these circling AIS tracks are appearing specifically at Point Reyes and a few other locations. It’s tempting to speculate that there might be some connection to a major U.S. Coast Guard communication station in Point Reyes which was an important historic location for developing maritime communications technology. While the Coast Guard left the area several years ago, volunteers continue to maintain at Point Reyes the only operational ship-to-shore maritime radio station. Still, it’s unclear why this location would somehow appear on AIS trackers. The fact that individual vessels in many different locations have been affected is puzzling and it’s unknown if any of these examples reflect actual disruptions of the GPS system. However some studies, such as a yearlong cruise by researchers of the German Aerospace Center which measured instances of GPS interference even during high seas transits, indicate that we may still have a great deal to learn about the true extent of global disruptions to this critical navigation system.

SkyTruth’s West Virginia FrackFinder Datasets Updated

Oil and gas drilling activity in West Virginia continues to expand.

For more than a decade, SkyTruth has been tracking the footprint of oil and gas development in the Marcellus and Utica shale basins in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio through our FrackFinder project. Initially, our FrackFinder project relied on volunteers to help us identify activity on the ground (thank you to all you SkyTruthers out there!). Since then, we’ve continued to update this database with help from SkyTruth interns and staff. Today, we’re excited to announce our latest updates to our West Virginia FrackFinder datasets. The updated data now include drilling sites and impoundments that appeared on the landscape through 2015–2016 (our 2016 update) and through 2017–2018 (our 2018 update). In 2016, 49 new drilling sites and 17 new impoundments appeared on the landscape. In 2018, 60 additional drilling sites and 20 new impoundments appeared; an 18% and 15% jump, respectively, from 2016.

With these additions, our West Virginia datasets track the footprint of oil and gas development in the state for more than decade, stretching from 2007 to 2018. 

Image 1. New drilling sites in Tyler County, near Wilbur and West Union, WV

We use high-resolution aerial photography collected as a part of the USDA’s National Agricultural Imaging Program (NAIP) to identify drilling sites and impoundments and make their locations available to the public. NAIP imagery is typically collected every two to three years, so once the imagery from each flight season is available, we  compare permit information from the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection with NAIP imagery to find and map new drilling sites. Our datasets of what’s actually on the ground — not just what’s been permitted on paper — help landowners, public health researchers, nonprofits, and policymakers identify opportunities for better policies and commonsense regulations. And our data has resulted in real-world impacts. For example, researchers from Johns Hopkins University used our FrackFinder data in Pennsylvania to document the human health impacts of fracking. Their research found that living near an unconventional natural gas drilling site can lead to higher premature birth rates in expecting mothers and may also lead to a greater chance of suffering an asthma attack. Maryland Governor Larry Hogan cited this information in his decision to ban fracking in his state. 

We’ve shared the updated FrackFinder West Virginia data with research partners at Downstream Strategies and the University of California–Berkeley investigating the public health impacts of modern drilling and fracking, and with environmental advocacy groups like Appalachian Voices and FracTracker Alliance fighting the expansion of energy development in the mid-Atlantic.

We are also proud to roll out a Google Earth Engine app, which will be the new home for our  West Virginia FrackFinder data. Users can find all of our previous years’ data (2007–2014) as well as our new 2016 and 2018 datasets on this app. The interactive map allows you to zoom into locations and see exactly where we’ve found oil and gas drilling sites and wastewater impoundments. A simple click on one of the points will display the year in which we first detected drilling, along with the measured area of the site or impoundment (in square meters). Users can toggle different years of interest on and off using the left panel of the map. At the bottom of that same panel, uses can access the total number of drilling sites and impoundments identified during each year. Lastly, users can download SkyTruth’s entire FrackFinder dataset using the export button.

Image 2. Our Earth Engine app lets users track oil and gas development through time in WV.

We hope that the updates to our West Virginia FrackFinder datasets, and the new Earth Engine app that hosts them, will inform researchers, landowners, policymakers, and others, and help them bring about positive change. Feel free to take a look and send us feedback; we love to hear from people using our data.

Bilge Dumping at Sea: What are SkyTruth and others doing about it?

With free public monitoring services and the help of watchdogs globally, bilge dumping can come to an end. SkyTruth’s new project Cerulean is one solution.

This is the last entry in a multi-part series revealing the significance of bilge dumping globally. You can read parts one, two, and three on SkyTruth’s blog.

Throughout this multi-part series on global bilge dumping, we have revealed how SkyTruth has identified oily pollution from ocean-going vessels, the range of harmful effects to coastal communities and marine ecosystems, and the challenges in prosecuting ocean offenders. We now address the future. What’s next? 

Recall that bilge dumping occurs when vessels bypass treating their oily wastewater and discharge it directly into the ocean. When we started this series, we reported on SkyTruth’s 2019 ocean monitoring efforts in which we recorded 163 oily slicks around the world. So far this year we have detected 98 new slicks. Now that we better understand what is occurring at sea, we are working hard to share that information with citizen watchdogs and others, enabling them to take action such as alerting authorities and publicly exposing wrongdoing in their coastal waters. With sustained pressure, we hope polluters will be forced to act responsibly.

Using radar satellite imagery, SkyTruth can observe and measure oil pollution in the ocean. Making a conservative assumption about an oil slick’s thickness, we can estimate the volume of oil, an indicator of the severity of an incident. The legal limit for discharging oily wastewater under international law outlined by the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) is 15 ppm for most cargo vessels and tankers. Trained observers on aircraft can see oil at concentrations of 50 parts per million (ppm) and above. It’s possible that under favorable sea-state conditions, radar satellite imagery is capable of revealing oil at lower concentrations, so we’ll be able to spot more potential violations. In a resolution to MARPOL specifying visibility limits of oil discharges, the Marine Environment Protection Committee “urgently requests authorities to consider the principle that a visible trace of oil is one element of proof that the 15 ppm discharge standard of Annex I of the MARPOL Convention may have been violated.” Similarly, under the U.S. Clean Water Act, oil discharges that cause a visible sheen are encouraged to be reported and are classified as potentially harmful to public health or welfare. 

Using advanced remote sensing techniques, we often can determine a likely source of pollution, whether from a vessel, a natural oil seep, or energy infrastructure like pipelines, drill rigs and production platforms. This kind of information can help oil-spill response efforts: If they know the location and source of oil pollution, responders are better able to take action and reduce the impacts of the pollution. In addition, if the pollution is from a vessel, near-real-time monitoring can help authorities catch a perpetrator who might still be nearby, or take administrative action when that vessel comes into port. Prosecuting criminal offenses for environmental crime requires robust evidence connecting a culprit to the crime. Satellite imagery can help: It collects evidence remotely, potentially providing an efficient way to prosecute ocean offenders.

To demonstrate this potential, in late 2019 SkyTruth launched project Cerulean to automate the detection of oil slicks on the world’s oceans and identify likely sources. Cerulean applies a machine learning technique called Deep Learning (a type of Artificial Intelligence) to make it possible to analyze thousands of satellite images every day to detect slicks and sources. We compare these slicks with public Automatic Identification System (AIS) vessel tracking data in order to identify the likely sources of this pollution (you can read more about our process here).

Image 1. Sentinel-1 radar satellite image of suspected bilge slick (black streak) in the Java Sea on February 15, 2020. AIS signals are shown for two potential sources. The likely source vessel is circled in red, with its AIS track (red) closely matching the slick in space and time. The other nearby vessel’s broadcasts (white) did not match the time and location of the slick.

Satellite data such as that provided by Cerulean could potentially help prosecutors convict oil polluters if it is approved for use in court. Remote sensing evidence is a relatively new tool in court cases. It must be authenticated and checked for integrity regarding the collection and storage of the data to ensure its validity. In the United States, cases using satellite evidence have not been widely published since many decisions about whether evidence is admissible can be made orally or pretrial. Because of this, we do not have a good estimate of how frequently satellite imagery is accepted as evidence. However, we do know that if the remote sensing technology is not new or novel it is more easily admissible. When trying to prove a fact, an expert witness with specialized knowledge can explain the reliability of the technology used and the data presented. In describing the detection of an oily slick, for example, an expert might need to explain a variety of factors that are considered in the analysis of ocean imagery, including weather conditions such as rain and wind speed, atmospheric and oceanographic features, and differentiating a vessel from ocean infrastructure in order to demonstrate the admissibility of image-based evidence

Satellite imagery has been used as evidence of other environmental crimes such as deforestation and illegal fishing. However, it is uncommon for imagery alone to provide conclusive evidence, or to prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt in prosecution for environmental crime. Satellite imagery has provided corroborating evidence that has led to prosecutions of pollution at sea. However, we have found no cases where it provided conclusive (dispositive) evidence, meaning it alone is usually not enough to link a crime to a perpetrator, or even prove that a crime occurred at all. Currently, eyewitness reporting is more often used as evidence for prosecution of bilge dumping. Whistleblowers and vessel inspectors have been a common catalyst for prosecution. For example, between 1993 and 2017, 76% of prosecuted cases under the U.S. Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships came from whistleblowers. Overall, there are no restrictions on satellite imagery’s power to serve as evidence in court as long as the technology has been proven valid and trustworthy.

Europe currently has an ocean monitoring service called the CleanSeaNet that has led to several prosecutions using satellite imagery in combination with on-ground evidence, in which fines were imposed. The European Union Directive 2009/123/EC specifies types of prosecution for ship-source pollution. However many courts still rarely prosecute. Often they require official inspection on site where the pollution occurred and on the vessel in order to connect the evidence to the crime, which can be challenging when collecting on-ground evidence is time sensitive. (Oil can disperse within 12 hours, and ships can easily be long gone by then.) Additionally, the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) states “(r)esolution of cases can take many years, and in some countries privacy issues prevent the full details being disclosed publicly.” 

Image 2. Suspected bilge slick in the Gulf of Guinea on February 23, 2020. The red AIS signals closely follow the linear slick to the likely source vessel (circled in red). Another nearby vessel’s broadcasts (white AIS signals) were also analyzed; however, this vessel was moving nearly perpendicular to the slick and is not a likely source.

But law enforcement agencies and citizen-activists aren’t the only stakeholders concerned about clean oceans. Companies have market-based incentives to be recognized as sustainable and socially responsible businesses, and they are liable to their stakeholders to uphold promises of corporate social responsibility. While the shipping industry produces ocean oil pollution, it is also the most energy efficient method for transporting goods. Such a large and fast-growing industry requires effective environmental regulation and enforcement. 

The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) theme for 2020 provides a unique opportunity for the shipping industry to clean up its act. The theme is “Sustainable shipping for a sustainable planet.”  For example, part of this includes the IMO’s 2020 sulphur cap on ships’ fuel oil. In transitioning to lower sulphur fuel, some shipping companies must adjust their current operations and infrastructure, which requires financing. By choosing cleaner ships that meet current and future environmental standards, investors, banks and other stakeholders consider Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) criteria. ESG concerns have led to efforts such as the Sustainable Shipping Initiative (SSI), an international partnership that promotes sustainability between its members, from ship owners to insurers to NGOs. SSI’s “Save As You Sail” program partners ship owners with financial providers in order to update vessels with more efficient emission-reducing technology and save on fuel costs. 

Additionally, vessel companies can voluntarily use grading initiatives such as the Swedish Clean Shipping Index (CSI) to hold themselves accountable. CSI scores a vessel company and its operations from its supply chain to emissions to operational discharges, allowing investors, clean tech providers, and other stakeholders, such as freight forwarders, to partner with responsible vessels who can be trusted to comply with international standards. A similar program exists in North America called Green Marine. The Environmental Ship Index (ESI) is an international scoring option that provides vessel-specific scoring and offers incentives such as discounts on port dues and bonuses to clean ships. Its index currently evaluates over 7,000 ships globally. To help support responsible ships and shipping practices, investment frameworks such as The Poseidon Principles provide banks around the world with principles that align ship financing with climate interests. Several large European banks such as the European Investment Bank (EIB) are committed to providing green investments through Blue Economy Finance Principles. These principles were created by the EIB to uphold the United Nations Environment Programme’s Sustainable Development Goal “Life below water.” In 2018, two banks, EIB and ING, agreed to provide 300 million euros of financing to support green shipping in Europe. These initiatives provide evidence that sustainability and a blue economy aren’t mutually exclusive. 

Cerulean aims to support international clean sea initiatives as well as stakeholder interests by providing a platform for stakeholders to directly monitor oily discharges from vessels. Companies and coalitions like those listed above can use Cerulean to help ensure a greener supply chain. Scoring indexes can use Cerulean to make sure vessels hold true to their ratings, allowing investors and insurers to be more confident in their partnerships. Widespread transparency of activity in the oceans encourages vessel operators, owners, and crew to operate responsibly in order to continue to receive support from their clients and other stakeholders, as well as to avoid criminal penalties. 

Image 3. These bright lines, compiled from dozens of radar satellite images, reveal heavy vessel traffic through the Strait of Malacca, one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes, over the course of several months in 2019.

Our conversation with a resort director in Southeast Asia suggests Cerulean will support citizen activists as well. This resort director (first introduced in the second blog post in this series) reached out to SkyTruth to share some of his experiences with bilge dumping. He has regularly found oil and tar washing ashore on beaches near Singapore and the Strait of Malacca for several years. He believes that part of the reason ship operators act irresponsibly is that they don’t really understand that they can be monitored, and don’t realize that their AIS broadcasts can be collected by the public. As an environmental activist whose livelihood depends on a clean coast, he would like to make vessel operators more aware of the transparency of their behavior and is interested in doing more personal monitoring of the sea surrounding his property. He believes Cerulean can help him, stating  “(i)t is super compelling to pair satellite data with AIS.” Knowledge of potential oil slicks nearby, even at night, allows citizens to prepare for when oil hits the land and can alleviate some of the clean-up. “It would be useful to know if a slick is coming,” he said. “We could get people organized to stop it. If we had a warning — even 30 minutes, it would give us enough time to make a difference.”

While the first version of Cerulean won’t provide continuous monitoring of the ocean (because the satellites now in orbit can only cover a portion of the earth every day), it would allow insight into ocean pollution every several days and will build a one-of-a-kind record of incidents over time. One key objective of Cerulean is to establish a scalable pipeline that can process more and more images as new satellite constellations are launched and cover our oceans more continuously. 

Cerulean is currently under development, and we hope to have an operational product by 2021. Once up and running, Cerulean will be free and open to the public, providing a user-friendly interface that allows anyone, without any technical expertise, to monitor their areas of interest for oily slicks. Users can receive near real-time alerts for oil detected in their area of interest along with insights into who might be responsible for the pollution. Cerulean will identify features such as a slick’s location, date, time, and length, in addition to specific vessel characteristics such as a vessel’s ID number, destination, owner, operator, and flag country. We hope Cerulean will provide more insight into hotspots — where bilge dumping is particularly common — as well as track repeat offenders to enable more robust prosecutions. We anticipate Cerulean will be a useful tool for fleet owners, shipping companies, and international merchandise retailers that choose to be environmentally responsible: they’ll be able to use Cerulean to track the performance of their fleet and incentivize operators and crew to stay in compliance with ocean law. Additionally, law enforcement can use these near real-time alerts to catch perpetrators in port and in coastal waters. Finally, we hope it will be a tool that empowers citizen watchdogs, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and journalists  to keep an eye on what’s happening at sea, report wrongdoings, and rachet up pressure on governments and businesses to do a better job protecting our ocean. 

In the meantime, SkyTruth analysts will continue to monitor hotspots in the ocean and share our results on this blog. By continuing to report on pollution across the world, innovate user-friendly platforms, and spread awareness, we are working to stop oil pollution at sea and protect the world’s marine ecosystems and the coastal communities that depend on them. 

Ten years ago SkyTruth Revealed the Truth about the BP Oil Spill

SkyTruth video highlights our work fighting oil pollution, then and now.

Ten years ago last week, BP’s Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico exploded, killing 11 men and setting off the worst environmental disaster in U.S. history. SkyTruth was there; not in person but remotely; using satellite imagery to track the spill from space. Working with oceanographer Ian MacDonald, we estimated that the amount of oil gushing from the broken wellhead was more than an order of magnitude larger than the estimates provided by BP and the U.S. Coast Guard. By making our independent analyses available to the public, we generated national and international media attention, and created pressure on the federal government to create its own scientific task force to determine the true size of the spill. Their conclusion, months later, was even larger than our estimates, and set the stage for the billions of dollars that BP eventually paid to help restore Gulf ecosystems and economies.

Watch our four-minute video to learn more about the disaster, and what SkyTruth is doing now to stop oil pollution at sea.

Thanks to Thad Reid for helping us with this production.

Bilge Dumping in Southeast Asia Continues in 2020

Southeast Asia appears to be a hotspot for bilge dumping.

SkyTruth continues to find frequent instances of apparent bilge dumping in the waters of Southeast Asia. Bilge dumping occurs when cargo vessels and tankers illegally discharge oily wastewater directly into the ocean. Vessel operators might do this to avoid the costs of treating their polluted wastewater, as required under international law (read more about that here).

On March 23, Sentinel-1 imagery captured three likely bilge slicks off the coast of Madura Island in Indonesia. The yellow circles in the image below highlight the length and variety of the slicks. In this image, two of the three bilge slicks reach a length of almost 90 kilometers (almost 56 miles). Multiple long bilge slicks in such close proximity to each other show an alarming trend for this region.

 

Image 1. Three suspected bilge slicks of varying length surround Madura Island in Indonesia.

On March 15, Sentinel-1 imagery captured another potential bilge slick about 30 kilometers long off the coast of Malaysia in the Java Sea. Using Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts from the vessel, SkyTruth identified the likely source of this slick as the Indonesian vessel known as the ARIN 8. 

 

Image 2. A vessel spotted off the coast of Malaysia leaving a black trail in its path: an oily slick indicating a possible instance of bilge dumping.

SkyTruth frequently documented bilge slicks in Southeast Asian waters throughout 2019 suggesting that this region is a hotspot for dumping, and in 2020 we’ve spotted oily slicks indicating more than 25 potential bilge dumping incidents in the  region. These slicks ranged from 20 to 100 kilometers (12 to 62 miles) in length. SkyTruth will continue to monitor this high traffic area to help bring attention to the issues in this region.