New Intern Matthew Ibarra Shifts from Aerospace Engineering to Protecting the Planet from Space

Matthew thought he wanted to be an aerospace engineer when he started college. Then he learned more about environmental damage to the planet.

Hello There!

My name is Matthew Ibarra and I am a new intern at SkyTruth. I am currently a student attending West Virginia University (WVU). Originally I came to WVU to study mechanical and aerospace engineering. I have always been passionate about math and science and so naturally I believed engineering would be a perfect fit for me. I was a part of my robotics team in high school and I believed this would be something I could do forever. 

However, as my time at WVU went on I became much less interested in engineering and I decided that I wanted to study something else. Through my engineering classes I inadvertently learned more about energy and from there about renewable energy sources. I developed a passion for renewables and I decided I wanted to shift my focus of study and work on environmental challenges. I have always felt there is a lot more bad news than good news in the world and I kept hearing about problems such as massive deforestation in the Amazon, pollution of the planet and the oceans — and those were just the tip of the melting iceberg. I wanted to do something that would leave a lasting impact. All of these factors pushed me to change my major to Environmental and Energy Resource Management. And it was the best decision I have ever made. 

Matthew played saxaphone for the WVU marching band and currently plays clarinet in the WVU Concert Band and saxophone in the WVU pep band. Photo by Roger Sealey.

My best friend Amanda’s mother Teri works at SkyTruth as our office administrator, which was very serendipitous for me. Amanda told me about SkyTruth and I was excited to learn how SkyTruth gathers environmental data and conducts research using satellite imagery. I was intrigued because it seemed like SkyTruth worked in all the areas I was passionate about: the environment, technology, and research. I looked into some of SkyTruth’s current and past projects and the ones that excited me the most include FrackFinder, which helps keep track of the environmental impacts of fracking for natural gas. I was also excited about SkyTruth’s interactive maps that help track the removal of mountaintops from coal mining. SkyTruth works on many other projects that I knew that I wanted to be a part of as well. An internship at SkyTruth was the perfect way for me to not only help work on projects I cared about, but also to learn more about what I am interested in.

As an intern I am currently working to monitor the South East Asia region for bilge dumps. Bilge dumps are illegal practices by vessels that attempt to bypass pollution control and dump their oily ballast and waste water at sea. I am collecting useful data that will contribute to a machine learning program that can automatically detect bilge dumps from satellite images around the world. I am also working to update FrackFinder to include data from 2016 and create an interactive map that can easily display information such as natural gas well pad locations in West Virginia, and when they were drilled, to show how natural gas fracking has impacted West Virginia over time.

I am passionate about sustainability and hope to make this central to my career. Sustainability is the notion of living your life in such a way that you leave resources for the people who come after you. After my time here at SkyTruth I hope to go into government work. I would like to work for the Department of Energy in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Fossil fuels will eventually run out and a transition to renewables will help current climate and environmental issues. I feel that it is important to find solutions now and transition our power needs to something that is more sustainable while we are still able to do so. 

Matthew admires Blackwater Canyon in West Virginia. Photo by Matthew Ibarra.

I believe SkyTruth is important in achieving my goals because I am gaining valuable skills and knowledge that I know will help me in the future. I love working with Geographic Information System programs (GIS). GIS is essentially using computers to analyze physical features of the Earth such as measuring forest density or tracking changing temperatures; it has almost endless applications.  I am learning to work with Google Earth Engine which is essentially a super powerful and intuitive way to work in GIS. Earth Engine requires me to be able to code in the programming language JavaScript and so I’m learning that skill as well. These are skills that will be forever relevant in the future and I am excited to deepen my understanding of them.

When I started college five years ago I never thought that I would end up where I am today. I spent so many sleepless nights trying to finish my physics homework and study my chemistry notes. I never thought that I would want to give all that up to work in something completely different, but I am thankful I did. I am eager to be learning something new every day at SkyTruth and I am thankful to everyone who helped me get to where I am today. I am excited to continue my internship here and keep learning more about what’s important to me.

Matthew is a hockey fan and celebrated the DC Capitals’ Stanley Cup victory in 2018. Photo by Photos Beyond DC.

 

 

7 Things You Didn’t Know You Could Do With SkyTruth Alerts

SkyTruth Alerts is better than ever. Learn how to make our new Alerts work for you.

SkyTruth’s new Alerts app is a year old! Or, in human terms, our new Alerts is in early childhood, a period of tremendous growth across all areas of development with occasional wobbles and stumbles.

SkyTruth Alerts show subscribers and users where environmental incidents have occurred in their Areas of Interest (AOIs), particularly for oil and gas activities. In making Alerts available to the public — at no charge — SkyTruth has provided access to tools, data and satellite imagery that environmentalists and citizen-scientists otherwise wouldn’t have. You can learn more about SkyTruth Alerts here

In 2018, we gave Alerts a facelift and SkyTruth began looking for additional datasets that would help subscribers monitor their AOI. We’ve expanded oil and gas permitting to include West Virginia, Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, Montana and Utah. We’ve also added pollution alerts for Florida, New Mexico and New York. (If you’d like to see more datasets, let us know!)

The new Alerts was developed to meet three goals: 

  • Provide users access to satellite imagery;
  • Give users the ability to create, annotate and share their own custom maps;
  • Enable a quicker process for adding new Alert data sources.

Whether you’re a longtime Alerts subscriber or are just starting out, here are seven features you might have missed.

1. Drawing Setback Distances Around an Alert

While Alerts incidents are generally tied to a specific point on a map, they can also greatly affect the surrounding areas. Alerts helps highlight these areas of impact by letting you define setback distances around an incident. (For example, you may get an Alert that your state government has issued a permit to drill and frack a new gas well in your AOI, and you want to create a map showing the 2500-foot zone of potential public health risk around that drilling site.)

Start by viewing the full details of an incident, either by clicking on an incident from an Alerts email, or when navigating the map by clicking an Alert icon, followed by the View Full Report link from the pop-up window.

You’ll find the Draw setbacks link at the top of the left sidebar. After clicking this link:

  1. Select a unit of measure (meter, km, mile).
  2. Select a distance.
  3. Click Draw.
  4. Repeat as necessary.

2. Navigating by Latitude/Longitude

Just like every house has its own address (house number, name of the street, city, etc), every point on the surface of earth can be specified by its own latitude and longitude coordinates. Sometimes, a latitude/longitude is all you have. Fortunately the Alerts Location Search box — located on the upper-right corner of the map — will accept these coordinates just as well as a city, state, or house address.

Try it out by on the Alerts Map by seeing where these latitude/longitude coordinates take you:

  • 36.0986, -112.1107
  • 30, -90

Wondering what the latitude/longitude is for where you are on the Alerts map? If you use a mouse or touchpad, Alerts will always show you the lat/lng for the current location of the pointer. You’ll find these coordinates on the right side of the heading, just under the Login link.

3. Search Alerts by Keyword and Time Period

Alerts has about 420,000 incidents in its database. The primary method for narrowing these down to the ones you’re interested in is by moving around the map, zooming in and out, and creating AOIs. You’ll always see the most recent 100 incidents on your current map.

Looking for a specific incident can seem impossible without the additional filtering that Alerts provides:

  • Start and end dates: Enter either or both dates. Results are shown automatically when completing each date.
  • Keyword: Alerts will search all incidents in the current map boundaries for the keyword you enter here. Keyword search is not case sensitive, so TAYLOR and taylor will return the same results. However, the incident must contain your typed keyword(s) with exactly the same spelling, spacing and syntax. 

Click the  when you’re finished typing the search keyword.

Some of the uses of this feature include searching incidents for a specific owner, address, material, well number (for oil and gas permits), or description. Also, many Alerts sources use special keywords to identify incidents. For example, we add the keyword BIGSPILL for spills over 100 gallons reported to the National Response Center, and for spills that we estimate are bigger than 100 gallons. Essentially, any words you see while viewing an incident can be used to search for similar incidents.

Some examples: 

  • ALLEGHENY POWER
  • TAYLOR ENERGY
  • SHEEN
  • AMMONIA
  • PIPELINE
  • INCINERATOR
  • SEATTLE
  • 063-37531
  • BIGSPILL
  • CRUDE

4. Download the Data to Analyze for yourself

Once you’ve got the map positioned just so, with the map boundaries and zoom level showing the area you’re interested in and any required filtering applied, you can take a closer look at the data and even download a CSV or KML file.

Start by clicking the Table view/Download icon, located on the Alerts tab:

You’re presented with a spreadsheet-like view of the data:

Here are some of the capabilities you’ll have:

  • Show top 20,000 alerts: check to show the most recent 20,000 instead of 100 incidents. [Update 8 May 2020: We’ve increased the number from 2,000 to 20000.]
  • Download KML File: KML files are used in an Earth browser such as Google Earth to layer the incidents visually on a map outside of Alerts. 
  • Download CSV File: CSV files can be opened by spreadsheets or viewed in text editors.
  • Previous and Next buttons take you through the data, page by page.
  • 20 rows dropdown list: allows you to change the number of incidents per page, up to 100.
  • Click on any column header (Id, Title, Incident Date, etc.) to sort on that column. Click again to sort in descending sequence.
  • Pull the vertical bars between column headings to increase/decrease the width of a column.

5. Play a Visualization of How Many Alerts Occurred Over Time

Before running this timeline, position the map with the boundaries and zoom level you want and apply any required filtering.  Start by clicking the Timeline link on the Alerts tab:


Alerts will create annual counts of incidents. Try running the visualization by clicking the
Play button:

From here, you’ll have controls to adjust the visualization:

  • Define how long each step represents (defaults to 1 year): Can select 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, or 24 months.
  • Define how long each step lasts (defaults to 1 second)
  • Select Marker plot or Heat map (defaults to Marker plot): The marker plot visualization will place a marker on the map for each alert; a heat map uses a warm-to-cool color spectrum to show where the incidents are most concentrated.
  • Select a date range (begin and end month/year)
  • Clear markers after each step, or not. If you don’t clear markers after each step, the map will represent a sum of incidents for the current step and and all prior steps.
  • Cluster markers, or not. For marker plots, you can cluster the incidents together instead of showing individual markers. Clustering provides a count of incidents in relative proximity to each other.

You must be logged into Alerts to use the remaining features in this post, making you a SkyTruth Alerts super-user!

6. Measure an Area on the Map

Navigate to any AOI on the map. You may want to switch to the Satellite basemap for a better view of the area. You’ll find basemap selection in the upper-middle section of the map:

Look for something you want to measure, such as a body of water, housing development, industrial complex, or agricultural field.

Start by clicking the Annotations icon , which opens the Annotations window:

There’s a lot to explore here, but for this exercise click the polygon () to start identifying the area you want to measure. You’ll find on-screen help in the Annotations window. In short, you start the measurement by clicking anywhere on the map, then use additional clicks to create new lines around the area you’re measuring. Complete the polygon by clicking the original starting point.

When finished, you’ll have these options:

By checking the Include area checkbox, Alerts will measure and display the selected area in square kilometers.

7. Share a Map Image

Create your custom map — any map! Select the alerts, basemaps, satellite imagery, layers, and annotations you want to show. When the map is ready to share, click the Share icon:

Then click the Download image of map button:

The image that’s downloaded will be a JPG file and can be found where your browser stores downloaded files. It will have a filename starting with skytruthalertsmap followed by the date and time. This is an experimental feature in Alerts and we would appreciate any feedback on its use.

Conclusion:

Alerts is becoming one of the go-to applications in an environmentalist’s toolbox. Soon, you’ll be able to create your own Issue Maps so that you can focus on the area, data, and map controls relevant to a specific topic. We also have high hopes for User Generated Alerts, planned for later in 2020, so you can show the world what’s happening in the places you care about. Stay tuned for new features in the year to come!

A Systematic Search for Bilge Dumping at Sea: 2019 in Review

What can a year’s worth of bilge dumping data tell us?

This is the first entry in a multi-part series revealing the significance of bilge dumping globally. 

Out of sight, beyond the horizon, lies a world of activity taking place in the sea. The ocean encompasses over 70% of the globe, yet most of us only see its edges from the coasts. We’ve built many of humanity’s largest and most advanced societies along coastal regions, yet because the ocean is so remote, much of what happens there remains mysterious.  

You might think of crime at sea as violence (piracy), abuse of natural resources (illegal fishing), or pollution (oil spills). However, at SkyTruth, we’ve recently focused on combating another very troubling action on the water: a serious crime known as bilge dumping. While not as well known as pollution like the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, bilge dumping is a phenomenon that should not be overlooked, and yet it often is. 

Bilge dumping occurs when a vessel illegally releases untreated, oily wastewater into the ocean. This wastewater, known as bilge, collects in the ship’s lower hull and needs to be emptied regularly. Since the 1970’s an international law known as MARPOL has required that bilge water be treated to remove the oil before the bilge can be legally discharged into the sea. When a vessel circumvents treatment and dumps directly into the ocean, its wastewater creates an oily slick on the water. Radar satellite imagery captures these distinctive slicks — dark and opaque — because oil smoothes the surface of the water. This dense oily slick lingers in the water until it’s broken apart by wind and wave action, dispersing toxins and globs of oil that can harm coastal communities and marine ecosystems. Vessel operators probably commit this crime as an act of convenience: to save money or time cleaning up after themselves, imposing on others the negative consequences.

SkyTruth has observed likely bilge dumping incidents around the globe many times since 2007. But in 2019, we started seeking out these incidents more systematically. We focused our daily monitoring efforts on some of the world’s major shipping lanes and on areas where we’ve found problems in the past, cataloguing every incident of bilge dumping we found through imagery. Our intent was to better understand the scope of this recurrent problem. We noted that when we went to look for oily slicks, we always found more! Unfortunately, we began to expect to see them; they were occurring somewhere within the areas we monitored almost every day. And our monitoring only covered a small part of the ocean. 

In total, between January and December 2019, we found 163 slicks averaging 56 kilometers (almost 35 miles) in length. We almost always found bilge dumps using Sentinel-1 imagery:  high-resolution C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite data made available by the European Space Agency. Although this imagery is sparse over the open ocean (see our blog post showing the coverage provided by these and other imaging satellites), it is collected regularly in coastal areas and provided coverage of several areas we considered likely to experience bilge dumping. Figure 1 documents each bilge dump incident we discovered, identified as red dots (note that because our monitoring was not covering the entire ocean, the lack of red dots in many areas on this map doesn’t necessarily mean those areas are free from bilge dumping).

 

Figure 1: Likely bilge dumping events identified by SkyTruth in 2019.

Our work suggests that bilge dumping isn’t sporadic; we repeatedly detected this illegal behavior in shipping lanes across the world, usually surrounding areas with significant energy development or active commercial ports, and often in areas with a “chokepoint” of marine traffic congestion. Bilge dumping was commonly seen in Southeast Asia, the Persian Gulf, and the Gulf of Guinea. Less frequently, but notably, we discovered it off the coast of Brazil, in the Mediterranean Sea, and in the Gulf of Mexico. In some cases, we have been able to identify the polluters, by correlating Automatic Identification System broadcasts (used to prevent collisions) from ships, with the time and location of oily slicks. 

In 2020, SkyTruth is working towards automating this process so we can routinely monitor much more of the ocean. We plan to use machine learning techniques to scan available satellite imagery daily, with the hopes of identifying these slicks automatically. Near real-time detection will allow authorities and the public to respond as soon as they receive notice of the slick, meaning more perpetrators (who might still be nearby, or headed into port) can be caught, and timely actions can be taken to mitigate potential environmental harm.

Figure 2. Likely bilge dump incidents identified by SkyTruth in 2019 by region.

The next segments of this series will explore bilge dumping in more depth, includingWhy should you care?” “How can this be happening?” and “What can be done about it?” We work as  space detectives —  investigating meticulously from above, revealing as much as we can down to the most pressing and actionable details. As we increase monitoring, automate the detection of offshore pollution with the use of machine learning, and raise public awareness, polluters will learn that they are being watched. We believe that more transparency leads to better behavior, better management, and better outcomes for Planet Earth. At SkyTruth, we are working to stop this illegal pollution by giving it the scrutiny it deserves. 

 

Updated 5/11/20